programming languages

The choice of a programming language, whether as the first technology to learn or to define the technical stack of a project, should not be made at random!

This technical choice must be based on several criteria, and one of them is the popularity of the language. A popular technology will indeed have a larger community and will often be better maintained: enough to facilitate development.

However, it is not easy to sort through all the languages ​​that exist today. To help you, here is our ranking of the most popular programming languages ​​in 2023.

What are the most popular programming languages ​​in 2023?

There is no universal ranking of the most popular programming languages. Several sources exist, placing the technos in a different order.

Among the most reliable sources is the famous Tiobe index , which is based on the number of web pages mentioning a particular language.

The other reliable ranking comes to us from GitHub Octoverse , an annual report containing a set of statistics on tech trends for the current year. GitHub relies on the repositories hosted on its platform to make its ranking. Unlike Tiobe, it is therefore indeed a popularity ranking, although it is only based on projects hosted on GitHub.

For this ranking, we will base ourselves on this second source, while mentioning the Tiobe ranking.


Unsurprisingly, JavaScript is at the top of the rankings. This programming language, born in 1995, owes its success in particular to its omnipresence in web development. It is indeed, with HTML and CSS , the language of the front-end; it is therefore present on the majority of websites.

In recent years, JavaScript has diversified, and allows for example to do mobile development (via React Native , Cordova or Capacitor ), back-end development with Node.js , and even software, thanks to Electron . This language even has libraries for development on the blockchain!

In short, JavaScript is used everywhere, and for almost everything, which ensures it the first place in this ranking. And it will be hard to beat, although it faces tough competition, including TypeScript, which we’ll talk about later.

2. Python

It is the Python language that occupies the second place in the ranking of the most popular programming languages. In the Tiobe index, it is even in first place! Although this language, created in 1991, did not enjoy immediate success, it began to gain momentum a decade ago, reaching the top three today.

The cause of this success, its almost ubiquitous use in the world of data science and Big Data . It is indeed the language that we find the most when we approach machine learning and artificial intelligence, for example. The reason for this ubiquity is its simplicity of learning and its relative velocity .

Python, also used for back-end development or in the world of IoT (Internet of Things – connected objects), is therefore far from having finished its growth.


The Java language, although having lost popularity over the years, remains unbeatable. Created in 1995, it gained rapid success through its use in software creation . Robust and fast to run, Java also makes it possible to create back-ends , video games , and Android mobile applications .

In the latter case, it was replaced in 2017 by the Kotlin language , officially recommended by Google. However, Java is still very present in the mobile environment, due to its historical presence in this environment.

These diverse use cases and its large number of developers make Java a language that lasts, and will continue to last.

4. Typescript

TypeScript is the most recent language in this ranking, since created in 2012. Produced by Microsoft , this technology is, roughly, an overlay to JavaScript. It adds to the latter several features expected by developers: typing ( hence its name), interfaces , module management or optional parameters .

These features, and in particular typing, explain the rapid success of TypeScript.

This language can now be used almost everywhere where JavaScript is historically used, so for new projects, many developers prefer to choose this new technology over its parent.

If you’re starting a project and hesitating between TypeScript and JavaScript, we wrote an article about it .


Ranked 5ᵉ by both Tiobe and GitHub Octoverse, C # is also one of the unbeatable languages. The most widely used technology for the development of Windows applications , it is also the basis of video game engines, such as Unity .

C# is also present in the world of web development, through the use of the ASP.NET framework , also from Microsoft. It is also possible to do cross-platform mobile development with C#, thanks to Xamarin technology

Due to its close link with the Microsoft world, C# is sure to keep an important place in the ranking of the most popular languages.

C++ is one of the oldest languages ​​in this ranking; it was created in 1985. Developed as an extension of the C language, it quickly imposed itself thanks to many advantages (and low competition): speed of execution , object-oriented language and “ low level ” type , allowing it to interact directly with the hardware.

C++ is also widely used in embedded systems, such as microcontrollers. But this language is also used to create operating systems , as well as video games .

6. PHP

If JavaScript is the front-end language of web development, PHP is the back-end one! Although it has more competition than JavaScript, this language born in the mid-90s is still the master of server development. It is estimated that it runs about 78% of sites using the back-end! For good reason, it is the language used by most CMS and e-commerce platforms, such as WordPress or PrestaShop , CMS running the majority of websites themselves.

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